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Completed: Feasibility study on valorisation of paper mill sludge (PMS) to manufacture Eco-bricks: Towards decarbonisation and sustainability in construction

In collaboration with StanRocc

The pulp and paper industry is seen as one of the most polluting of the 6 Foundation Industries and needs urgent attention to achieve circularity. Recycled paper produces 73% less air pollution than paper made from wood pulps which yields a significant amount of waste, collectively referred to as pulp and paper mill sludge (PMS). Research carried out at LSBU has explored the feasibility of using this waste as an active ingredient in construction to produce fired clay bricks.

Research focused on material characterisation of PMS and its corresponding use in value-added eco-bricks, wherein brick properties such as water absorption, apparent porosity and compressive strength of the bricks were determined. Based on the percentage PMS added, corresponding embodied energy and CO2 release were calculated. Results revealed the presence of silica, calcium carbonate and other important minerals useful in the fabrication of bricks. PMS-based bricks with different proportions (0-20 wt%) and fired at 850’C and 900’C are shown in in the picture below.

Picture of PMS-based bricks
Fig. 1 Effect of PMS content on compressive strength and Fig. 2 Effect of PMS content on CO2 released and embodied energy


Review of the untapped potentials of antimicrobial materials in the construction sector,

Dr Saurav Goel

London South Bank University


Saurav Goel is an associate professor in the Mechanical Engineering Division of London South Bank University. He is an EPSRC ECF Forum member in manufacturing, an associate director of the EPSRC NetworkPlus in Manufacturing and a recipient of the Royal Society’s Newton Fellowship award. He holds a visiting professorship at the Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati and is currently serving as an associate editor for four International journals: Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, BioMaterials and Polymers Horizons and Nanofabrication.

Published: November 3rd, 2021
Posted in projects

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